The following is based
on the original description of Bas (1978)
and the description of Guyanan material by C. Simmons et al.
of A. lanivolva is 30 - 75 mm wide, plano-convex
with a broad central depression, subumbonate or not,
glabrous, subviscid, with a broad sulcate-striate margin
(40 - 60% of the radius). The cap is moderately dark,
slightly olivaceous tinged brown, a slightly more reddish
browncenter, with white interstriation at the margin. In the
Guyanan material of this species, sometimes a few volval warts remain
in the center of the cap. This was not reported from the
original Brazilian material of the species.
The gills are free, crowded, narrow, and white to pallid grayish. The short
gills are truncate to obliquely truncate and pale buff to
pale ochraceous brown in dried specimens.
The stem is 65 - 100 × 5 - 8 mm, tapering upward, hollow, exannulate, white,
fragile, smooth, and glabrous. The flesh is white and
unchanging. The limbate-saccate volva is membranous, loosely sheathing
above its attachment to the bulb, covering one-quarter to one-third of
the total length of the stipe and its bulb, and gray to fuscous gray.
The spores of Amazonian material measure 7.5 - 9.5 × 5.5 - 7 µm (Bas, 1978) and are broadly ellipsoid to ellipsoid.
Clamps are present at bases of basidia. Spore measurements from Guyanan material of C. Simmons et al.
(2002) are 7.4 - 9.8 × 5.0 - 6.6 (-7.2) µm. RET data from Guyanan material are as follows:
(7.9-) 8.0 - 9.1 (-10.5) × (5.4-) 5.5 - 6.6 (-6.9) µm, ellipsoid to (infrequently) elongate.
Amanita lanivolva was originally
described from Amazonia. It is now also known from the Pakaraima
Mtns. of Guyana where it occurs with Dicymbe (a genus of the Caesalpinaceae).
Molecular studies have suggested that these trees are descendants of
populations that existed prior to the separation of Africa and South
America. (T. Henkel, pers. corresp.)
This curious species is the first example of a
species with a membranous volva, inamyloid spores, and a basal
bulb. It must be placed in Amanita sect. Amanita
because of the latter characters. There is another species (of
which no detailed images exist to my knowledge) that may share the
curioius characters of the present one—A.
pseudospreta Raithelh.—previously placed in Amanita sect. Vaginatae
(Tulloss & Halling, 1997).
—R. E. Tulloss
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INPA; isotype, L
C. Simmons, T. Henkel and Bas. 2002. Persoonia 17(4): 577, fig. 5(a-e), pl. 3.
The following text may make multiple use of each data field.
The field may contain magenta text presenting data from a type study
and/or revision of other original material cited in the protolog of the present taxon.
Macroscopic descriptions in magenta are a combination of data from the protolog and
additional observations made on the exiccata during revision of the cited original
The same field may also contain black text, which is data from a revision of the present
taxon (including non-type material and/or material not cited in the protolog).
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this text is appropriate.
Olive text indicates a specimen that has not been
thoroughly examined (for example, for microscopic details) and marks other places in the text
where data is missing or uncertain.
The following material is derived from the protolog.
from protolog: [20/2/2] 7.5 - 9.5 × 5.5 - 7.0 μm, (Q = (1.20-) 1.25 - 1.60 (-1.65); Q = 1.30 - 1.50), colorless, hyaline, thin-walled, smooth, inamyloid, broadly ellipsoid to ellipsoid, with apex often rounded-subconic; apiculus proportionately small; contents usually as single "oil drop"; color in deposit not recorded.
Simmons et al. (2002): [40/3/3] 7.4 - 9.8 × 5.0 - 6.6 (-7.2) μm, (Q = 1.30 - 1.65; Q = 1.40 - 1.55), with very slightly thickened wall, inamyloid, broadly ellipsoid to ellipsoid; apiculus proportionately rather broad; contents as "oil droplet"; color in deposit not recorded.
type study of Wartchow (2010): [50/1/1] (6.5–) 7.0 – 9.0 × (5.0–) 5.5 – 7.0 (–7.5) μm, (L = 8.0 μm; W = 6.0 μm; Q = (1.21–) 1.29 – 1.46 (–1.49); Q = 1.34), hyaline, smooth, thin-walled, inamyloid, broadly ellipsoid to ellipsoid, adaxially concave or rarely flattened.
Brazil: "Fairly common on the ground in secondary tropical rain forest, near Neea (Nyctaginaceae; Singer B9897 definitely shown to be connected with short roots of Neea sp.). wotj nearby Rubiaceae, Sapindaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae, Flacourtiaceae and Palmae."
Guyana: from Simmons et al. (2002): In "riverine swamp forest on flat ground dominated by Dicymbe altsonii (Edubayek) and D. corymbosa (Paluwayek) with scattered associated hardwoods" or on forested slopes adjacent to river bank or "in fringing forest around southern edge of savannah."
from protolog: BRAZIL: AMAZONAS—Manaus, ca. INPA [3°05'45" S/ 59°59'16" W], 1977 R. Singer B9843 (holotype, INPA 66.715, with color slide; isotype, L), 29.v.1977 R. Singer B9897 (paratype, INPA 66.716).
[Note: Bas (1978) reported that other material (collected in secondary forest around Manaus) that Bas did not revise was deposited in INPA.]
Simmons et al. (2002): GUYANA: POTARI-SIPARUNI REGION—Pakaraima Mtns., Upper Ireng watershed - Sukabi R. 1-2 km upstream from confluence with Ireng R., 22.v.1998 T. Henkel & L. Williams TH6432 (BRG; L); Upper Ireng R., 27.v.1998 T. Henkel 6640 (BRG; L; RET 379-2); Mt. Kubinoang, ca. 3 km SW of peak, 25.v.1998 T. Henkel et al. TH6593 (BRG; L).
Wartchow (2010): BRAZIL: AMAZONAS—Manaus, ca. INPA [3°05'45" S/ 59°59'16" W], 29.v.1977 R. Singer B9897 (paratype, INPA 66.716).
from Simmons et al. (2002): "There is no longer any doubt about the presence of a small, but distinct basal bulb in this species. Because of this bulb A. lanivolva does clearly not belong to section Vaginatae, but to section Amanita. ...."
Other taxa that appear to have a bulb within a saccate universal veil are known from Chile and Argentina. Amanita pseudospreta appears to belong in this group.
A more distantly related species with the same unusual character is known from Central Africa—A. pudica.
—R. E. Tulloss, F. Wartchow
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