Fruiting bodies of this species are small to medium- sized. The cap of A. rufoferruginea is 40 - 90 mm wide, yellow-brown, hemispherical, becoming convex then expanded or applanate and slightly depressed in the center, dry, fulvous or paler, with a more or less striate margin. The cap is densely covered with brick red to orange to orange-brown to leather brown to antique brown powdery volval remnants. The cap's flesh is white.
The gills are free to barely attached, close, white to cream-colored, minutely floccose on the edge and ventricose. The short gills are truncate and of diverse lengths.
The stem is 70 - 120 × 5 - 20 mm, subcylindric to narrowing upward, stuffed or hollow, and densely covered below the ring with powdery or mealy material of the same color as the volva on the cap. On the stipe there is a basal bulb 15 - 30± mm wide that is subglobose to spindle-shaped. At the base of the stem, powdery, pale brown, evanescent, incomplete circles are sometimes present as volval remnants. The stem bears a membranous, persistent, skirt-like ring that often becomes torn during expansion of the cap. The ring's upper surface is white, and the lower surface is the same color as the volval material on the stem.
Neither odor nor taste has been reported for this species.
The spores measure 7.0 - 9.0 (-13.0) × 6.5 - 8.5 (-11.5) µm and are subglobose, ellipsoid, or somewhat pyriform and inamyloid. Clamps are absent from the bases of basidia.
Amanita rufoferruginea was originally described from Japan. It occurs in broad-leaved and
coniferous forests. It is also known from China and South Korea.
Amanita rufoferruginea is characterized by its pileus and stipe surfaces' being densely covered with brick red to ferruginous or leather brown, powdery volval remnants; globose to subglobose inamyloid spores; and the absence of basidial clamps.—Zhu L. Yang and R. E. Tulloss
Hongo. 1966. J. Jap. Bot. 41(6): 165, fig. 1(d-e).
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TNS per (Doi. 1991. Bull. Natl. Sci. Mus., Tokyo, Ser. B 17(2): 50)
Hongo. 1967 ["1966"]. Mem. Fac. Liberal Arts Shiga Univ., Pt. 2, Nat. Sci. 17: 89, fig. 16(1).
Z. L. Yang. 1997. Biblioth. Mycol. 170: 35, figs. 21-23.
Imazeki and Hongo. 1987. Color. Illus. Mushr. Japan 1: 118, pl. 27 (fig. 198).
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The following is derived from (Hongo 1967) and (Yang 1997).
NOTE: Spore data from papers by Z. L. Yang are presented following his use of the "Times New Roman" face for "Q" and "Q'"—respectively, "Q" and "Q."
Hongo (1967): 45 - 90 mm wide, fulvous or paler, hemispheric, becoming convex, slightly depressed over disc, dry; context thin, white; margin more or less striate, in age "grooved-striate" or tuberculate-striate; universal veil as detersile pulverulence, Xanthine Orange or Mars Yellow or Amber Brown or Antique Brown.
Yang (1997): 40 - 70 mm wide, yellow-brown, paler toward margin, hemispheric at first, then convex to expanded convex, sometimes flattened or slightly depressed in disc; context whitish, thin; margin striate (0.2 - 0.4R); universal veil pulverulent, sometimes as fine floccose warts, orange-brown or red-brown or leather brown, detersile.
Hongo (1967): free, close, white, 4 - 7 mm broad, ventricose, with edge minutely flocculose; lamellulae truncate.
Yang (1997): free, density and color not recorded, 3 - 5 mm broad, narrowing toward stipe, with margin pulverulent to finely flocculose and red-brown; lamellulae truncate, 0-2 between pair of [otherwise adjacent] lamellae.
Hongo (1967): 90 - 120 × 4 - 10 mm (measured at apex), narrowing upward, with dense covering of pulverulence or farinose particles (brighter than Ochraceous Tawny) both above and below partial veil; bulb obovate to subfusiform, 13 - 20 mm wide; context stuffed to hollow; partial veil at 15 - 25 mm below apex, membranous, pendent, rather large, white and striate above, Ochraceous-Tawny and floccose-pulverulent below, evanescent; universal veil contributing pulverulence and farinose particles below partial veil (see above) and (at stipe base) as 3 - 5 pulverulent pale brownish incomplete rings, evanescent.
Yang (1997): 70 - 100 × 5 - 10 mm, with color not recorded, subcylindric or slightly narrowing upward; bulb ovoid to fusiform, 15 - 20 mm wide; context stuffed or hollow; partial veil superior, fragile, with red-brown edge, white and finely striate above, red-brown to leather brown below; universal veil as pulverulent scales, red-brown to rust-brown to braun, widely distributed, with concentration in incomplete brown to brownish circlets on upper half of bulb.
Yang (1997): [60/3/1] 7.0 - 9.0 (-13.0) × 6.5 - 8.5 (-11.5) μm, (Q = (1.0-) 1.04 - 1.16 (-1.23); Q = 1.09 ± 0.04), subglobose, occasionally globose, rarely broadly ellipsoid, inamyloid, colorless, hyaline, smooth, thin-walled; apiculus small; contents not recorded; color in deposit not observed.
Solitary or in small groups. Japan: In Pinus forest or in Pinus densiflora-Quercus serrata forest (Hongo 1967). China: In dominantly coniferous forest with Pinus spp. and some representatives of the Fagaceae (Yang 1997).
Hongo (1967): JAPAN: HONSHU—Kyoto-fu - Kyoto-shi, Iwakura, 29.vii.1966 N. Sagara s.n. [Hongo 3122] (holotype, in herb. T. Hongo => TNS F-244373), 1.viii.1966 T. Hongo 3124 (in herb. T. Hongo). Shiga-ken - Ôtsu-shi, Senjô, 11.vii.1966 M. Endo s.n. [Hongo 3249] (in herb. T. Hongo); Ôtsu-shi, Shibara, 8.viii.1966 T. Hongo 3273 (in herb. T. Hongo); Ôtsu-shi, Terabe, 4.viii.1966 T. Hongo 3270 (in herb. T. Hongo), 13.ix.1966 T. Hongo 3310 (in herb. T. Hongo).
Yang (1997): CHINA: GUIZHOU—Unkn. Pref. - Unkn. Co., Wuling Mountains, Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve, viii.1983 X. L. Wu 817 (HKAS 14378).
The precise placement of this species within section Amanita is not clear to the editors at this time. The "more or less" gelatinized pileipellis seems to suggest separation from the taxa of the provisional series Farinosae. The absence of a limbate limbus internus segregates the present species from the monotypic, provisional series Crenulatae. Nevertheless, the taxon is assignable to the provisional subsection Amanitella; hence, for the moment we assign it to a provisional, monotypic series: Amanita series Rufoferrugineae.
The Japanese name for this species is "kabairo-kona-tengutake" (Doi 1991).
Translation from German by RET.—Zhu L. Yang
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